Wednesday, October 25, 2017

Liquefied Gas Handling Principles On Ships and in Terminals


Liquefied Gas
Handling Principles On Ships and in Terminals
McGuire and White

 



THIRD EDITION

irst Edition 1986
Second Edition 1996
Third Edition 2000


© Copyright SIGTTO, Bermuda 1986, 1996, 2000


ISBN 1 85609 1643
    

 

All rights reserved



Published and Printed in Great Britain by

Witherby & Co Ltd

32-36 Aylesbury Street

London EC1R 0ET, England


 
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data


While the information given has been gathered from what is believed to be the best sources available and the deductions made and recommendations put forward are considered to be soundly based, this book is intended  purely as helpful guidance and as a stimulation  to  the development of more data and experience on the subject.

No responsibility is accepted by the Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators Ltd or by any person, firm, corporation or organisation who or which has been in any way concerned with the compilation,  publication,  supply  or  sale  of  this  textbook,  for  the  accuracy  of  any  information  or soundness of any advice given herein or for any omission herefrom or for any consequence whatsoever resulting directly or indirectly from the adoption of the guidance contained herein.




Published by
Witherby & Company Limited
32-36 Aylesbury Street, London EC1R 0ET Tel No. 020 7251 5341  Fax No. 020 7251 1296
International Tel No. +44 20 7251 5341  Fax No. +44 20 7251 1296


 

Preface to third edition

Liquefied Gas Handling Principles, after two previous editions, is firmly established as the standard text for the industrys operational side. It is an indispensible companion for all those training for operational qualifications and an accessible work of reference for those already directly engaged in liquefied gas operations. Its appeal extends also to many others, not directly involved in the operational aspects of the industry, who require  a  comprehensive   and  ready  reference  for   technical   aspects   of   their businesses.

It is therefore important for Liquefied Gas Handling Principles to be kept thoroughly up to date. Although there are no single major changes from previous editions, this, its Third Edition, comprises  many amendments that together ensure the work is kept current with contemporary operating practices.


Preface to second edition

Since publication of the first edition, this book has become an acknowledged text for courses leading to the award of Dangerous Cargo Endorsements for seagoing certificates of competency. In this regard, the books contents are now recommended by IMO in the latest revision of the Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping convention. In addition, the book is being used increasingly for many non-statutory courses involving the training of marine terminal personnel. These achievements are due to the efforts of many SIGTTO members who have ensured comprehensive and practical coverage of the subject.

This second edition of Liquefied Gas Handling Principles on Ships and in Terminals is produced to bring the first edition up to date. The main changes stem from publication by  IMO  of  the  International  Code  for  the  Construction  and  Equipment  of  Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (IGC Code). This Code was under preparation at the time  of  the  first  edition  but  was not  fully  covered  as publication  dates  for  each coincided. Also, since the IGC Code was printed, a number of amendments have been made to it. These changes are incorporated into the Safety of Life at Sea convention and, therefore, need coverage. At the time of writing, further amendments to the Gas Codes are being considered by IMO and these are also covered in this edition. One such is the new framework of rules and guidelines covering the Loading Limits for ships cargo tanks. This initiative has direct relevance to ships personnel and needs to be understood by staff involved in cargo handling operations at loading terminals.

The new second edition also includes the appropriate parts from the most up to date Ship/Shore Safety Check List as printed in the latest edition of the International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals. This check list should be used by all terminals






handling gas carriers. The Ship/Shore Safety Check List is supported by IMO in its Recommendations on the Safe Transport of Dangerous Cargoes and Related Activities in Port Areas.

Revision of the original text was also necessary due to the introduction  of stricter environmental requirements; the decision to ban the use of halon as a fire- extinguishing medium is one example of such changes. Growing environmental awareness concerning many halogenated hydrocarbons (halons) and refrigerant gases such as CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), resulting from an international agreement called the Montreal Protocol on Substances which Deplete the Ozone Layer (1987), will cause gradual phasing out and replacement by other products.


 
Preface to first edition

 
This textbook,  published  by the Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators (SIGTTO), deals with the safe handling of bulk liquid gases (LNG, LPG and chemical  gases) and  emphasises  the  importance  of  understanding  their  physical properties in relation to the practical operation of gas-handling equipment on ships and at terminals. The book has been written primarily for serving ships officers and terminal  staff  who  are  responsible  for  cargo  handling  operations,  but  also  for personnel  who  are  about  to  be  placed  in  positions  of  responsibility  for  these operations.

The contents cover the syllabus for the IMO Dangerous Cargo Endorsement (Liquefied Gas) as outlined in the IMO Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping convention. The text is complementary to the Tanker Safety Guide (Liquefied Gas) and the IMO Gas Carrier Codes. Where a point regarding ship design requires authoritative interpretation, reference should always be made to the IMO Codes. The importance of the ship/shore interface in relation to the overall safety of cargo handling operations is summarised in Chapter Six and stressed throughout the text.

Names of compounds  are those traditionally used by the gas industry. In general, Systeme  International  (Sl) units  are  used  throughout  the  book  although,  where appropriate,  alternative units are given. Definitions are provided  in an introductory section  and  all sources  of  information  used  throughout  the  text  are identified  in Appendix 1. A comprehensive index is also provided for quick reference and topics which occur in more than one chapter are cross-referenced throughout the text.

This textbook is also intended as a personal reference book for serving officers on gas carriers and for terminal operational staff.

    
Acknowledgements
 
The original text of this book was devised and drafted by Graham McGuire and Barry White of the Hazardous Cargo Handling Unit (now The Centre for Advanced Maritime Studies, Edinburgh, UK) to whom the Society expresses its sincere gratitude.

Particular thanks is also due to Michael Corkhill, Roger Ffooks, Paddy Watson and the late Alberto Allievi for their work on the first edition.

When revising the text in 1995 valuable assistance was received from Martin Boeckenhauer, Doug Brown, Michael Corkhill (again), John Glover, Jaap Hirdes, Roy Izatt, Mike Riley and Bill Wayne all of whom have the express thanks of the Society. For the new edition, many revised drawings are provided and in this regard thanks are due to David Cullen and Syd Harris.

Appreciation  is  also  expressed  to  the  SIGTTO Secretariat  who  co-ordinated  the comments received.

Finally, the  Society  acknowledges  the  personal  assistance  from  many  individuals within the SIGTTO membership worldwide who have ensured that the text will be of direct relevance to all concerned with the safe and reliable marine transportation and terminalling of liquefied gases.

 
Contents






PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION
Page No.

v
PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION
v
PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION
vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
vii
FIGURES AND TABLES
xv
DEFINITIONS
xix
EXPLANATION OF SYMBOLS
xxviii

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1
1.1
Liquefied gases
1
1.2
Liquefied gas production
2
1.2.1
LNG production
3
1.2.2
LPG production
5
1.2.3
Production of chemical gases
6
1.2.4
The principal products
7
1.3
Types of gas carriers
9
1.4
The ship/shore interface and jetty standards
12
1.4.1
Safe jetty designs
12
1.4.2
Jetty operations
12

CHAPTER 2

PROPERTIES OF LIQUEFIED GASES

15
2.1
Chemical structure of gases
15
2.2
Saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons
17
2.3
The chemical gases
19
2.4
Chemical properties
20
2.5
Inert gas and nitrogen
24
2.6
Polymerisation
26
2.7
Hydrate formation
28
2.8
Lubrication
28
2.9
Physical properties
29
2.10
States of matter
29
2.10.1
Solids, liquids and gases
29
2.10.2
Spillage of liquefied gas
32
2.11
Principles of refrigeration
32
2.12
Critical temperatures and pressures
34






2.13




Liquid/vapour volume relationships
Page No.

34
2.14

Ideal gas laws
34
2.15

Saturated vapour pressure
37
2.16

Liquid and vapour densities
41

2.16.1
Liquid density
41

2.16.2
Vapour density
42
2.17

Physical properties of gas mixtures
43
2.18

Bubble points and dew points for mixtures
44
2.19

Reliquefaction and enthalpy
46

2.19.1
Enthalpy
46

2.19.2
Refrigeration
46
2.20

Flammability
48
2.21

Suppression of flammability by inert gas
52
2.22

Sources of ignition
53

CHAPTER 3
PRINCIPLES OF GAS CARRIER DESIGN
57
3.1
Design standards and ship types
57
3.1.1
The gas carrier codes
57
3.2
Cargo containment systems
58
3.2.1
Independent tanks
59
3.2.2
Membrane tanks
62
3.2.3
Semi-membrane tanks
65
3.2.4
Integral tanks
66
3.2.5
Internal insulation tanks
66
3.3
Materials of construction and insulation
66
3.3.1
Construction materials
66
3.3.2
Tank insulation
66
3.4
Gas carrier types
67
3.4.1
Fully pressurised ships
68
3.4.2
Semi-pressurised ships
68
3.4.3
Ethylene ships
69
3.4.4
Fully refrigerated ships
69
3.4.5
LNG ships
70
3.5
Gas carrier layout
70
3.6
Survival capability
72
3.7
Surveys and certification
72
3.7.1
Certificate of fitness
72
3.7.2
Other certification
73

CHAPTER 4
THE SHIP EQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION
75
4.1
Cargo pipelines and valves
75
4.1.1
Cargo pipelines
75
4.1.2
Cargo valves and strainers
76
4.1.3
Emergency shut-down (ESD) systems
77
4.1.4
Relief valves for cargo tanks and pipelines
77
4.2
Cargo pumps
79
4.3
Cargo heaters
86
4.4
Cargo vaporisers
87
4.5
Reliquefaction plants and boil-off control
87
4.5.1
Indirect cycles
87
4.5.2
Direct cycles
88
4.6
Cargo compressors and associated equipment
91
4.6.1
Reciprocating compressors
92
4.6.2
Screw compressors
94







4.6.3



Compressor suction liquid separator
Page No.

95
4.6.4
Purge gas condenser
95
4.6.5
LNG boil-off and vapour-handling systems
96
4.7

Inert gas and nitrogen systems
96

4.7.1
Inert gas generators
97

4.7.2
Nitrogen production on ships
100

4.7.3
Pure nitrogen from the shore
100
4.8

Electrical equipment in gas dangerous spaces
101
4.9

Instrumentation
102

4.9.1
Liquid level instrumentation
102

4.9.2
Level alarm and automatic shut-down systems
107

4.9.3
Pressure and temperature monitoring
107

4.9.4
Gas detection systems
108

4.9.5
LNG custody transfer systems
108

4.9.6
Integrated systems
109

4.9.7
Calibration
109

CHAPTER 5        

 THE TERMINAL EQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION                                   111

5.1                        Cargo transfer systems                                                              111
5.1.1              Hoses                                                                                 111
5.1.2              Hard arms (loading arms)                                                     112
5.1.3              Vapour return                                                                       116
5.1.4              Insulating flanges                                                                 118
5.2                        Shore storage                                                                             118
5.2.1              Pressurised storage at ambient temperature                          118
5.2.2              Storage in semi-pressurised spheres                                   122
5.2.3              Refrigerated storage at atmospheric pressure                      123
5.2.4              Construction materials and design                                       128
5.3                        Ancillary equipment                                                                   129
5.3.1              Pressure relief venting                                                          129
5.3.2              Pipelines and valves                                                           129
5.3.3              Pumps, compressors and heat exchangers                        131
5.4                        Instrumentation                                                                         134
5.4.1              Product metering                                                               134
5.4.2              Pressure, temperature and level instrumentation                  137
5.4.3              Gas detection systems                                                      137
5.5                        Fire-fighting                                                                              137
5.5.1              Water                                                                                138
5.5.2              Foam                                                                                138
5.5.3              Dry chemical powders                                                        138
5.5.4              Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) systems                                          139
5.5.5              Halon replacements                                                           139
5.5.6              Inspection, maintenance and training                                  140


CHAPTER 6         

THE SHIP/SHORE INTERFACE                                                                            141

6.1                        Supervision and control                                                            141
6.2                        Design considerations                                                              143
6.2.1              The terminal                                                                      143
6.2.2              The ship                                                                             143
6.3                        Communications                                                                      144
6.3.1              Prior to charter                                                                  144
6.3.2              Prior to arrival                                                                   144
6.3.3              Alongside the jetty                                                             145
6.4                        Discussions prior to cargo transfer                                          145






6.5




Ship/Shore safety check list
Page No.

146
6.6

Operational considerations
147

6.6.1
Berthing and mooring
147

6.6.2
Connection and disconnection of cargo hoses and hard arms
148

6.6.3
Cargo tank atmospheres
148

6.6.4
Cargo handling procedures
149

6.6.5
Cargo surveyors
149

6.6.6
Gangways and ship security
150

6.6.7
Bunkering
150

6.6.8
Work permits
151
6.7

Fire-fighting and safety
151
6.8

Linked Emergency shut-down systems
152
6.9

Terminal booklet Information and Regulation
153
6.10

Training
154






CHAPTER 7         
CARGO HANDLING OPERATIONS                                                                          155

7.1                        Sequence of operations                                                                155
7.2                        Tank inspection, drying and inerting                                              156
7.2.1              Tank inspection                                                                      156
7.2.2              Drying                                                                                   156
7.2.3              Inerting before loading                                                        157
7.3                        Gassing-up                                                                                  160
7.3.1              Gassing-up at sea using liquid from deck storage tanks                                 161
7.3.2              Gassing-up alongside                                                           161
7.4                        Cool-down                                                                                   163
7.5                        Loading                                                                                       165
7.5.1              Loading preliminary procedures                                         165
7.5.2              Control of vapours during loading                                           167
7.5.3              Loading early stages                                                        168
7.5.4              Bulk loading                                                                          170
7.5.5              Cargo tank loading limits                                                       171
7.6                        The loaded voyage                                                                      174
7.6.1              Operation of the reliquefaction plant                                       176
7.6.2              LNG boil-off as fuel                                                               177
7.7                        Discharging                                                                                 177
7.7.1              Discharge by pressurising the vapour space                           178
7.7.2              Discharge by pumps                                                             178
7.7.3              Discharge via booster pump and cargo heater                       182
7.7.4              Draining tanks and pipelines                                                 183
7.8                        The ballast voyage                                                                      183
7.9                        Changing cargo (and preparation for drydock)                               184
7.9.1              Removal of remaining liquid                                                   185
7.9.2              Warming-up                                                                          186
7.9.3              Inerting after discharge                                                      187
7.9.4              Aerating                                                                               188
7.9.5              Ammonia special procedures                                            189
7.10                      Ship-to-ship transfer                                                                   190
7.11                      Conclusion                                                                                  190


CHAPTER 8         

CARGO MEASUREMENT AND CALCULATION                                                     191


8.1                        Principles for liquefied gases                                                   191
8.1.1              Special practices for gas cargoes                                      191
8.1.2              General. Density in air and density in vacuum                     192







8.1.3



True density (apparent density)
Page No.

193
8.1.4
Relative density (specific gravity)
193
8.1.5
Apparent relative density (apparent specific gravity)
194
8.1.6
LNG quantification
195
8.1.7
Shore measurement versus ship measurement
195
8.2

Measurement of cargo tank volumes
196

8.2.1
Trim correction
196

8.2.2
List correction
197

8.2.3
Tape correction
197

8.2.4
Float correction
198

8.2.5
Tank shell contraction and expansion
198
8.3

Measurement of density
198

8.3.1
Density measurement methods
198

8.3.2
Units of density
199
8.4

Ship/shore calculation procedures
199

8.4.1
Outline of weight-in-air calculation
199

8.4.2
Procedures using standard temperature
200

8.4.3
Procedure using dynamic flow measurement
201
8.5
Example cargo calculation
202
8.6
Other calculation procedures and measurement units
203
8.7
Cargo documentation
203
CHAPTER 9
PERSONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY
207
9.1
Cargo hazards
207
9.2
Flammability
210
9.2.1
Operational aspects
210
9.2.2
Emergency aspects
210
9.3
Air deficiency
210
9.3.1
Toxicity
210
9.3.2
Asphyxia (suffocation)
212
9.3.3
Medical treatment
213
9.3.4
Oxygen therapy
214
9.4
Frostbite
215
9.5
Chemical burns
216
9.6
Transport to hospital
217
9.7
Hazardous atmospheres
217
9.7.1
The need for gas testing
217
9.7.2
Oxygen analysers
218
9.7.3
Combustible gas indicators
220
9.7.4
Toxicity detectors
222
9.8
Entry into enclosed spaces
223
9.8.1
Precautions for tank entry
223
9.8.2
Procedures
224
9.8.3
Rescue from enclosed spaces
225
9.9
Personal protection
225
9.9.1
Breathing apparatus
225
9.9.2
Protective clothing
227
CHAPTER10
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
229
10.1
The principal hazards
229
10.1.1
Flammability
229
10.1.2
Vaporisation of spilled liquid
230
10.1.3
Toxicity and toxic products of combustion
230
10.1.4
Frostbite
230
10.1.5
Brittle fracture
230


Page No.

10.2                      Liquefied gas fires                                                                       230
10.2.1            Fire detection                                                                         231
10.2.2            Jet fires                                                                                 231
10.2.3            Liquid (pool) fires                                                                   231
10.2.4            Fires in compressor rooms                                                     232
10.3                      Liquefied gas fire-fighting                                                              233
10.3.1            Alarm procedures                                                                   233
10.3.2            Extinguishing mediums                                                          233
10.3.3            Training                                                                                 235
10.4                      Emergency procedures                                                                235
10.4.1            The emergency plan                                                              235
10.4.2            Ship emergency procedures                                                   236
10.4.3            Terminal emergency procedures                                              237
10.5                      Emergency release and emergency shut-down                             238
10.5.1            Emergency shut-down (ESD) ship/shore links                  238
10.5.2            Emergency release systems (ERS)                                       238
10.6                      Removal of ship from berth                                                          239
10.7                      Ship-to-ship cargo transfer                                                         239


APPENDIX 1
References
241
APPENDIX 2
Liquefied and Chemical Gases Covered by the IGC Code
245
APPENDIX 3
Ship/Shore Safety Check List
247
INDEX

269






Figures and Tables


Inside front and back covers LPG and LNG carriers (to scale)



Figure No.        Title

1.1                    Constituents of natural gas
1.2                    Typical flow diagram for LNG liquefaction
1.3                    Typical oil/gas flow diagram
1.4                    Typical flow diagram production of chemical gas
2.1                    Molecular structure of some saturated hydrocarbons
2.2                    Molecular structure of some unsaturated hydrocarbons
2.3                    Molecular structure of some chemical gases
2.4                    Solubility of water in butadiene
2.5                    The polymerisation of vinyl chloride
2.5(a)                Inhibitor information form
2.6                    Temperature/heat diagram for varying states of matter
2.7                    Characteristics of methane
2.8                    Simple refrigeration evaporation/condensation cycle
2.9(a)                Boyles Law for gases (constant temperature)
2.9(b)                Charles Law for gases (constant pressure)
2.9(c)                Pressure Law for gases (constant volume)
2.10                  Relationship between adiabatic and isothermal compression
2.11                   Barometric method for measuring saturated vapour pressure
2.12                  Characteristics of propane
2.13                  Pressure/temperature relationship for hydrocarbon gases
2.14                  Pressure/temperature relationship for chemical gases
2.15                  Equilibrium diagram for propane/butane mixtures
2.16                  Mollier diagram for propane
2.17                  Flammable range for propane
2.18                  Flammable vapour zones a liquefied gas spill
2.19                  Flammable limits of gas mixtures in air and nitrogen
3.1                    Prismatic self-supporting Type A tank fully refrigerated LPG carrier
3.2(a)                Self-supporting spherical Type ‘B tank
3.2(b)                Self-supporting prismatic Type ‘B tank
3.3                    Type ‘C tanks fully pressurised gas carrier
3.4                    Type ‘C tanks semi-pressurised gas carrier with bi-lobe tanks
3.5(a)                Gaz Transport membrane containment system larger LNG carriers
3.5(b)                Construction of the Gaz Transport membrane system
3.6(a)                Technigaz membrane containment system larger LNG carriers
3.6(b)                Construction of the Technigaz membrane Mark lll
3.7                    Compressor room/electric motor room on a gas carrier
4.1                    Cargo tank dome piping arrangement Type ‘C tank
4.2                    Pilot-operated relief valve
4.3                    Pump performance curves a deepwell pump
4.4                    Centrifugal pumps in parallel combined characteristics


Figure No.         Title

4.5                    Centrifugal pumps in series — combined characteristics
4.6                    Typical deepwell pump
4.7(a)                Submerged motor pump for LPG
4.7(b)                Typical LNG submerged motor pump assembly
4.8                    Vertical booster pump
4.9                    Horizontal booster pump
4.10                  Cargo heater
4.10(a)              Examples of indirect cooling cycles
4.11(a)              Single-stage direct reliquefaction cycle
4.11(b)              Mollier diagram single-stage direct reliquefaction cycle
4.12(a)              Two-stage direct reliquefaction cycle with inter-stage cooling
4.12(b)              Mollier diagram two-stage direct reliquefaction cycle
4.13                  Simplified cascade reliquefaction cycle
4.14                  Sulzer oil-free compressor
4.15                  Linde oil-free compressor
4.16                  Typical rotor for an oil-free screw compressor
4.17                  Typical purge gas condenser system
4.18                  Flow diagram of an inert gas generator
4.19                  Saturated water content of inert gas
4.20                  Drying of inert gas
4.21                   The membrane system for producing nitrogen
4.22                  Intrinsic safety using Zener barriers
4.23                  Float level gauge
4.24                  Nitrogen bubbler level gauge
4.25                  Differential pressure level gauge
4.26                  Electrical capacitance level gauge
5.1                    Typical gas carrier loading arm
5.2                    Loading arm operating envelope
5.3                    Quick connect/disconnect  coupling
5.4                    Powered emergency release coupling (PERC)
5.5                    Roots blower typically used for vapour return
5.6                    LPG loading terminal vapour return using a shore based blower
5.7                    Fully pressurised storage in horizontal cylindrical tanks
5.8                    Rock cavern LPG storage
5.9                    Salt cavern LPG storage
5.10                  Semi-pressurised storage in spheres
5.11                   Typical single-wall tank LPG storage
5.12                  LNG tank concrete bund
5.13                  LNG tank double-wall
5.14                  Double containment steel tank for LPG
5.15                  LPG tank earth berm
5.16                  In-ground tank for LNG
5.17                  Bursting disc for surge pressure relief
5.18                  Flow diagram for reliquefaction within an LPG terminal
5.19                  LNG receiving terminal vaporiser/sendout
5.20                  A positive displacement meter
5.21                   A turbine meter
5.22                  A prover loop
7.1                    Air drying operational cycle
7.2                    Inerting cargo tanks by the displacement method
7.3(a)                Gassing-up cargo tanks using liquid from shore
7.3(b)                Gassing-up cargo tanks using vapour from shore
7.4                    Cargo tank cool-down using liquid from shore
7.5                    Loading with vapour return
7.6                    Loading without vapour return
7.7                    Cargo refrigeration at sea


Figure No.         Title

7.8                    Combined ship and shore pumping characteristics single pump
7.9                    Illustration of static head and friction head
7.10                  Combined ship and shore pumping characteristics parallel pumps
7.11                   Discharge without vapour return
7.12                  Discharge with vapour return
7.13                  Pipeline diagram of a cargo booster pump and heater
7.14                  Removal of cargo liquid residue by pressurisation
7.15                  Inerting of cargo tanks
7.16                  Aeration of cargo tanks
8.1                    Cargo calculations correction for trim
8.2                    Cargo calculations correction for list
9.1                    Patient label
9.2(a)                Oxygen indicator circuit diagram
9.2(b)                Oxygen indicator plan view
9.2(c)                A polarographic cell
9.3(a)                Combustible gas indicator circuit diagram
9.3(b)                Combustible gas indicator calibration graph
9.4                    Infrared gas analyser
9.5                    Toxic gas indicator
9.6                    Maritime safety card with safety check list
10.1                  Pool fire configurations

Table No.           Title

1.1                    Physical properties of some liquefied gases
2.1                    Synonyms for the main liquefied gases
2.2                    Chemical properties of liquefied gases
2.3(a)                Chemical compatibilities of liquefied gases
2.3(b)                Previous cargo compatibilities of liquefied gases
2.4                    Inert gas compositions
2.4(a)                Factors affecting lubrication
2.5                    Physical properties of gases
2.6                    Conversion factors for units of pressure
2.7                    Calculation for molecular mass of a gas mixture
2.8                    Ignition properties for liquefied gases
2.9                    Flammability range in air and oxygen for some liquefied gases
3.1                    Typical insulation materials
8.1                    ASTM 56 (short table)
9.1                    Health data cargo vapour
9.1(a)                Health data cargo inhibitors
9.2                    Additional health data cargo liquid
9.3                    Liquefied gas groups for medical first aid purposes
9.4                    Enclosed spaces on gas carriers

 
 

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